Application of robotics pdf
Robots are changing agriculture beyond recognition, from cobot-assisted milking to cow-herding drones! The food industry is being revolutionized by robotics and automation. In this article, we focus on specific applications in the agricultural industry.
After all, farming is the start of the whole food journey! Automated agriculture is going from strength to strength. There are real problems in modern agriculture.
Traditional farming methods struggle to keep up with the efficiencies required by the market. Farmers in developed countries are suffering from a lack of workforce. The rise of automated farming is an attempt to solve these problems by using robotics and advanced sensing. Nurseries are where seeds are grown into young plants, which are later planted outside.
Nursery plants are often sold direct to consumers and landscape gardeners, but they are also the start of the food journey for some crops. There is a rising need for nursery automation. Companies like HETO Agrotechnics and Harvest Automation who we introduced in a previous post provide automation solutions for seeding, potting and warehousing living plants in greenhouses.
Many food plants begin life as seeds in a field. The traditional method for sewing seeds is to scatter them using a "broadcast spreader" attached to a tractor. This throws many seeds around the field while the tractor drives at a steady pace. It is not a very efficient method of planting as it can waste seeds. Autonomous precision seeding combines robotics with geomapping. A map is generated which shows the soil properties quality, density, etc at every point in the field.
The tractor, with robotic seeding attachment, then places the seeds at precise locations and depths so that each has the best chance of growing. Monitoring huge fields of crop is a big job.
New sensor and geomapping technologies are allowing farmers to get a much higher level of data about their crops than they have in the past. Ground robots and drones provide a way to collect this data autonomously. Drone companies like PrecisionHawk offer farmers combined packages which include robotic hardware and analysis software. The farmer can then move the drone to the field, initiate the software via a tablet or smartphone, and view the collected crop data in real time.
Ground based robots, like BoniRobprovide even more detailed monitoring as they are able to get closer to the crops. Some can also be used for other tasks like weeding and fertilizing. Irrigating and fertilizing crops has traditionally used a lot of water is quite inefficient. Robot-Assisted Precision Irrigation can reduce wasted water by targeting specific plants.
Ground robots autonomously navigate between rows of crop and pour water directly at the base of each plant. Robots also have an advantage as they are able to access areas where other machines cannot. For example, corn growers face a problem that the plants grow too quickly to reliably fertilize them. Rowbot aims to solve this problem as it easily drives between the rows of corn and targets nitrogen fertilizer directly at the base of each plant.
Spraying pesticides and weed killers onto fields is not only wasteful, it can severely harm the environment. Robots provide a much more efficient method. The concept of micro-spraying could significantly reduce the amount of herbicide used in crop growing.Robotics is a domain in artificial intelligence that deals with the study of creating intelligent and efficient robots.
Robots are aimed at manipulating the objects by perceiving, picking, moving, modifying the physical properties of object, destroying it, or to have an effect thereby freeing manpower from doing repetitive functions without getting bored, distracted, or exhausted. Robotics is a branch of AI, which is composed of Electrical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, and Computer Science for designing, construction, and application of robots.
The robots have mechanical constructionform, or shape designed to accomplish a particular task. They contain some level of computer program that determines what, when and how a robot does something. Locomotion is the mechanism that makes a robot capable of moving in its environment.
This type of locomotion consumes more power while demonstrating walk, jump, trot, hop, climb up or down, etc. It requires more number of motors to accomplish a movement. It is suited for rough as well as smooth terrain where irregular or too smooth surface makes it consume more power for a wheeled locomotion. It is little difficult to implement because of stability issues.
It comes with the variety of one, two, four, and six legs.
Robotics (Academic) Books
If a robot has multiple legs then leg coordination is necessary for locomotion. The total number of possible gaits a periodic sequence of lift and release events for each of the total legs a robot can travel depends upon the number of its legs.
Hence the complexity of robots is directly proportional to the number of legs. It requires fewer number of motors to accomplish a movement. It is little easy to implement as there are less stability issues in case of more number of wheels.
It is power efficient as compared to legged locomotion. In this type, the vehicles use tracks as in a tank.
The robot is steered by moving the tracks with different speeds in the same or opposite direction. It offers stability because of large contact area of track and ground. Robots are equipped with vision sensors to be to compute the depth in the environment.
A tactile sensor imitates the mechanical properties of touch receptors of human fingertips. This is a technology of AI with which the robots can see.Each robot has its own unique features, and as a whole robots vary hugely in size, shape, and capabilities.
Still, many robots share a variety of features. Here are the 15 categories we used to classify robots. Aerospace: This is a broad category. It includes all sorts of flying robots—the SmartBird robotic seagull and the Raven surveillance drone, for example—but also robots that can operate in space, such as Mars rovers and NASA's Robonaut, the humanoid that flew to the International Space Station and is now back on Earth.
Consumer: Consumer robots are robots you can buy and use just for fun or to help you with tasks and chores. Examples are the robot dog Aibo, the Roomba vacuum, AI-powered robot assistants, and a growing variety of robotic toys and kits. Disaster Response: These robots perform dangerous jobs like searching for survivors in the aftermath of an emergency.
For example, after an earthquake and tsunami struck Japan inPackbots were used to inspect damage at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station. Drones: Also called unmanned aerial vehicles, drones come in different sizes and have different levels of autonomy. Education: This broad category is aimed at the next generation of roboticists, for use at home or in classrooms. Entertainment: These robots are designed to evoke an emotional response and make us laugh or feel surprise or in awe.
Exoskeletons: Robotic exoskeletons can be used for physical rehabilitation and for enabling a paralyzed patient walk again. Some have industrial or military applications, by giving the wearer added mobility, endurance, or capacity to carry heavy loads.
Humanoids: This is probably the type of robot that most people think of when they think of a robot. Industrial: The traditional industrial robot consists of a manipulator arm designed to perform repetitive tasks. An example is the Unimate, the grandfather of all factory robots. This category includes also systems like Amazon's warehouse robots and collaborative factory robots that can operate alongside human workers.
Medical: Medical and health-care robots include systems such as the da Vinci surgical robot and bionic prostheses, as well as robotic exoskeletons. A system that may fit in this category but is not a robot is Watson, the IBM question-answering supercomputer, which has been used in healthcare applications.
Security robots include autonomous mobile systems such as Cobalt. So although some robots may fit other categories described here, they can also be called research robots. Self-Driving Cars: Many robots can drive themselves around, and an increasing number of them can now drive you around.
Telepresence: Telepresence robots allow you to be present at a place without actually going there. You log on to a robot avatar via the internet and drive it around, seeing what it sees, and talking with people. Workers can use it to collaborate with colleagues at a distant office, and doctors can use it to check on patients. Underwater: The favorite place for these robots is in the water.
Home Robots News Play Learn search.A key driver for this growth is demand for using robots in minimally invasive surgeries, especially for neurologic, orthopedic, and laparoscopic procedures. As a result, a wide range of robots is being developed to serve in a variety of roles within the medical environment. Robots specializing in human treatment include surgical robots and rehabilitation robots. The field of assistive and therapeutic robotic devices is also expanding rapidly.
A robotic surgical system controlled by a surgeon from a console. Image: Wikimedia Commons. Surgical Assistants These remote-controlled robots assist surgeons with performing operations, typically minimally invasive procedures. Additional applications for these surgical-assistant robots are continually being developed, as more advanced 3DHD technology gives surgeons the spatial references needed for highly complex surgery, including more enhanced natural stereo visualization, combined with augmented reality.5 of the Most Important Inventions in Robotics
Rehabilitation Robots These play a crucial role in the recovery of people with disabilities, including improved mobility, strength, coordination, and quality of life. These robots can be programmed to adapt to the condition of each patient as they recover from strokes, traumatic brain or spinal cord injuries, or neurobehavioral or neuromuscular diseases such as multiple sclerosis.
Virtual reality integrated with rehabilitation robots can also improve balance, walking, and other motor functions. Medical Transportation Robots Supplies, medications, and meals are delivered to patients and staff by these robots, thereby optimizing communication between doctors, hospital staff members, and patients.
Upper limb rehabilitation.
Artificial Intelligence - Robotics
Sanitation and Disinfection Robots With the increase in antibiotic-resistant bacteria and outbreaks of deadly infections like Ebola, more healthcare facilities are using robots to clean and disinfect surfaces. Robotic Prescription Dispensing Systems The biggest advantages of robots are speed and accuracy, two features that are very important to pharmacies. Advanced robots continue to be designed for an ever-expanding range of applications in the healthcare space.
For example, a research team led by Gregory Fischer, an associate professor of mechanical engineering and robotics engineering at Worcester Polytechnic Institute, is developing a compact, high-precision surgical robot that will operate within the bore of an MRI scanneras well as the electronic control systems and software that go with it, to improve prostate biopsy accuracy.
To develop robots that can work inside an MRI scanner, Fischer and his team have had to overcome several significant technical challenges. Since the MRI scanner uses a powerful magnet, the robot, including all of its sensors and actuators, must be made from nonferrous materials.
This all added up to a massive systems integration project which required many iterations of the hardware and software to get to that point. In other research, virtual reality is being integrated with rehabilitation robots to expand the range of therapy exercise, increasing motivation and physical treatment effects.
Exciting discoveries are being made with nanoparticles and nanomaterials. Soon, ingestible, broadband-enabled digital tools will be available that use wireless technology to help monitor internal reactions to medications.
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Positive Negative. Your cart Learn more about shopping on ABB.The research area Space Robotics deals with the development of intelligent robots for extraterrestrial exploration focusing on:. This area deals with the development and realization of Artificial Intelligence methods in underwater systems. Main points of research are:. In the field of electric mobility we are testing concepts for electric vehicles, battery charge technologies, and the collection of vehicle data.
We are creating models for intelligent, environmentally sound, and integrated urban mobility. Our research focuses around:. Our research focuses around the new robotics for the Industrie 4. In this area, robots will be developed to support rescue and security personnel. Main points of our research are:. This field deals with robotic systems that can support humans in complex, exhausting or often repeated tasks. Application areas are both help during activites of everyday life at home or work and medical rehabilitation.
Support can either take place using systems the human is wearing like exoskeletons or orthoses, or by service robots performing the respective task. Core topics include:. Concept development, design and construction intelligent hardware-system architectures software architectures embedded biosignal analysis, e.
Fields of Application. Space Robotics. The research area Space Robotics deals with the development of intelligent robots for extraterrestrial exploration focusing on: Development of robot systems for unstructured, uneven terrain based on biologically inspired innovative locomotion concepts Development of multi-functional robot teams usable for different tasks ranging from in-situ examinations to the organisation and maintenance of infrastructure Reconfigurable systems for planetary exploration AI-based methods for autonomous navigation and mission planning in unknown terrain Image evaluation, object recognition and terrain modelling AI-based support systems for scientific experiments.
Underwater Robotics. Main points of research are: Development of systems for user support in remote-controlled underwater vehicles employing virtual immersion methods Design of methods for autonomous manipulation and mission planning of robot arms in underwater applications, particularly with state-of-the-art sensor technology, such as "Visual Servoing" Image evaluation and object recognition with modular and intelligent underwater cameras Design of control methods for next-generation autonomous underwater vehicles Development of biologically inspired and energy-efficient methods of transport for underwater vehicles, such as oscillating systems.
Electric Mobility. Main points of our research are: Development of highly mobile platforms for indoor and outdoor applications Development of autonomous systems that are able to identify potential victims SAR or intruders Security Development and application of state-of-the-art sensor technology based on radar, laser scanner, and thermal vision to identify objects and persons, resp.
Embedding of robot systems into existing rescue and security infrastructures Autonomous navigation and mission planning. Assistance- and Rehabilitation Systems.
Core topics include: Concept development, design and construction intelligent hardware-system architectures software architectures embedded biosignal analysis, e.Artificial intelligence is gaining traction in the agricultural industry and is steadily being integrated in robotics developed for this sector. As automated technologies penetrate the market, we aim to answer the important questions that business leaders are asking today:.
Based on our research, most current ag robotics applications fit into the following sub-categories:. Below we have selected 8 brief examples across these four sub-categories.
Each provides a snapshot of how AI and robotics are converging within the agriculture industry. Herbicide resistance has become a primary concern for stakeholders in the agricultural industry. The increasing use of herbicides has contributed to herbicide resistance which has been documented in species of weeds. In response to the continued challenges that weeds are presenting to farmers, Blue River Technology has launched a weed spraying machine.
The U. Bureau of Labor Statistics has recently reported an anticipated loss of six percent of the agricultural workforce nationwide. In a hour time span, the robot is reportedly capable of picking strawberries across eight acres of land. With a reported 40 percent of nationwide farm costs going to wages and other labor costs, companies engaged in efforts to implement AI into agriculture are on the rise.
Based on the U. Harvest CROO does not publish the cost of its robot on its website.
Introduction to Robotics: Analysis, Control, Applications, 2nd Edition
Colorado-based Agribotix reportedly takes agricultural data captured by drones and conducts analyses using cloud-based software to help clients increase crop yields and profits. According to the Agribotix website, the company claims that it has experience with more than 44 crops and its clientele base spans over 45 countries.
The one minute video below provides a demonstration of a drone in action:. In one case studyAgribotix claims its technology helped a soybean grower prevent damage to its crops from weeds and avoided a 13 percent crop loss. Theoretically, the information derived from these images would allow more efficient budgeting and planning of farming and harvesting procedures. Specifically, computer vision allows robots to generate 3D maps and models of areas of interest and then to complete various tasks within those parameters.
It can also be a time-consuming process. Future initiatives appear to include the development of precision weed removal technology using herbacids and the company is actively seeking strategic partners. Vision Robotics has not published an anticipated timeline for this effort. In a survey conducted by the The Produce Marketing Association, apples and strawberries ranked 2nd and 4th place among the top 20 fruits and vegetable sold in the U.
It has been estimated that it takes a human 10 to 15 minutes to pick a quart of ripe strawberriesand — judging by the video below — this robot seems rather far from beating human performance in the near term:. While the machine likely would be of little use in a normal read: un-instrumented berry farm setting, this application may help generate ideas about the super-efficient farm setups of the future optimized for machine performance, not human performance.
It is unclear exactly when the organization expects to realize its ambitious effort. The prototype was reportedly developed two years prior as demonstrated in the video below:. We might imagine that fruit at various levels or in different layouts might be more challenging for the machine.
Historically, apple harvesting has been conducted manually. Inan estimated 4.